27 Jun Equipment for metal cutting: type, advantages and disadvantages
Today, sheet metal has been widely used in all industries and construction. Companies using it to produce their products purchase metal in rolls, of course, there is a need for cutting metal, t. to. The dimensions of the final product are not comparable to the total length of the metal tape. Several types of metal cutting are used at present.
Guillotine scissors are the most common type of equipment used for metal cutting. There are manual and mechanical machines. It is customary to divide the latter into hydraulic, pneumatic and electromechanical. Sometimes electromechanicals are brought into a special subclass, sometimes they are called electrical. The work of all types of guillotin, with the exception of manual, can be automated. On machines of this type, metal is cut with a thickness of several tenths of a millimeter to 12 mm or more, depending on the type of source material. Guillotines have proven themselves well when cutting simple details.
The disadvantages of Guillotin include the need for periodic replacement and sharpening of a cutting tool, which with a dull can form an uneven edge. Guillotines are widely used in cutting metal, wood and plastic. Standard equipment for the production of KNAUF profiles involves the use of guillotine for metal cutting.
The tool is often used at construction sites. Differ in simplicity in use and low weight. Allow you to cut any metal, wood or plastic. Modern circular saws have a special capture of sparks and chips, which allows you to save the workplace in clean and order.
The metal during cutting is practically not heated and does not deform. Saws can be battery and network. The most convenient ones when working are saws with a triangular base, t. to. It allows you to see the disk when cutting. Finally, the most modern models of circular saws have a laser guidance system, which can significantly increase the accuracy of cutting.
Gas cutting metal
The metal is cut by a stream of pure oxygen, with the participation of combustible gas, most often natural gas under a pressure of at least 5-6 atmospheres or propane, or acetylene. The method is highly accurate, but cannot be used for cutting stainless steel and non -ferrous metals, for cutting a sheet with a thickness of less than 6 mm and more than 200. With reducing the thickness of the sheet, the cut quality decreases sharply. Even on better equipment, cut metal with a thickness of less than 5 mm irrational.
Gas -flame cutting of metal
Used for cutting metal with a thickness of 1 to 300 mm. Equipment for gas -flame cutting is characterized by low cost with high cutting quality. The method is based on the use of a direct current of direct current of direct action, where the cut metal serves as an anode. The metal in the arc area is heated to 22,000 degrees, then it is simply blown out of the arc area, and the cathode moves along the sheet of the workpiece.
For high -quality cutting, chemically neutral nitrogen is used instead of air. The method is characterized by high quality and speed when cutting thin-with a thickness of up to 4-6 mm-sheets, but requires regular replacement of electrodes and nozzles. The maximum thickness of the cut sheet directly depends on the thermal conductivity of the metal, the higher it is, the more heat is discharged from the cut site and, as a result, the maximum thickness is reduced.
Laser cutting of metal
The method is considered the most advanced. It is based on the use of high -power laser beam. Strictly speaking, the use of lasers for industrial needs is not new. Back in the mid-70s of the last century, the first automated machines for laser cutting metals appeared. When using lasers, it is possible to completely avoid the roughness of the cut, deformations. After the laser operation, no additional metal processing operations are required. Modern machines for the profile allow you to adjust the power of the laser beam, which makes such a machine universal, suitable for cutting any metal of any thickness. Also, the laser machine allows you to cut metal on any – arbitrarily complex – trajectory, making blanks of any shape. High -precision cutting tables are used for the production of complex figures.